What is 3D Printer and how is it used full information


What is 3D Printer and how is it used full information


What is a Printer Maybe you all know, but do you know what 3D Printers are and how they work? If you too, like other people, do not know anything about it and want to know everything, then you should definitely read this article.

Where a normal printer is only able to print in 2D, a 3D printer is advanced from it and can print three dimensional things just like a real object. With this, you can design the object as you imagine. This ease and accessibility makes 3D printers available to you.

If you do not know about 2D or 3D then these are 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional. Meaning that if an object is placed on a plane surface, then its position can be seen in the x axis, y axis and z axis. This allows one to see the depth of that object, the 3d object is completely visible like real objects.

Where you can see only 2d models in front whereas 3d models you can see from back to back. Like we see things in our real life.

By the way, to get all the information related to what a 3D printing machine is and how it works, read this article till the end. At the same time, the whole process of doing its work has been explained in easy language also. Hope this article is a 3D printer, you will like it. So let's go ahead without delay.

What is 3d printing

3d printing
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process in which three dimensional solid objects are made from a digital file.

Additive processes are used to create a 3D printed object. To create an object in this additive process, the material is placed one on top in successive layers until that object is created. In this, you can see each of the layers at the end of a thinly sliced ​​horizontal cross-section of the eventual object that you want to create at the end.

3D printing is completely the opposite of subtractive manufacturing where an object is gradually cut into small pieces using a milling machine.

3D printing enables you to prepare very complex (functional) shapes, which is very easy to do with traditional manufacturing methods. At the same time very few things are required for this.

History of 3d printer

If you open the history of manufacturinf itself then subtractive methods are first used. In the whole machining empire (in which exact shapes are prepared with high precision) subtractive methods have been given more importance, with filing and turning being the main means of milling and grinding.

Additive manufacturing applications have been ranked last in the entire manufacturing spectrum.

For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost when prototypes of new parts and devices are being developed, to do this first with subtractive toolroom methods (which is were typically slow and expensive).

But as advancement in techonology started, additive methods were used more and more in manufacturing. At one time, where only subtractive methods were used, now profit is being made by using additive methods.

Whereas if we talk about real integration of new additive technologies in commercial production then subtractive methods should be used on a complementing basis with subtractive methods and not they should be completely erased.

If talking about the future of commercial manufacturing, then manufacturing firms need all available technologies of flexible, ever-improving users if they want to remain competitive.

How does 3D Printing work?

3D printing starts from your computer when you create a 3D Model in your system. In this, this digital design is a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file.

A 3D model is either created from the ground up by a 3D modeling software that is based from the data generated by a 3D Scanner. At the same time, with the help of a 3D scanner you can make a digital copy of an object.

3D Scanning

This is a process in which a real-world object or environment is analyzed to collect data about their shape and appearance. Digital 3D models are then created from these collected data.

3D Modeling and 3D Modeling Software

3D modeling in 3D Computer Graphics is called the process by which mathematical representation of the surface of an object is made in 3 dimensions by specialized softwares. The product that is prepared in this is called 3D Model and the people who work on these 3D Models are called 3D Artists.

3D Modeling Softwares is a class of 3D Computer Graphics Software that is used to create a 3D Model. Individual programs in this class are called modeling applications or modelers.

3D modeling software is always designed keeping in mind the needs of the user industry. Such as aerospace, transportation, furniture designs, fabrics etc.

Now that we have a 3D model Mezhud, now the next step is to prepare it so that it can be made 3D printable.

Slicing: 3D Printer to 3D Printer

You have to slice a 3D Model to make it 3D printable ready. Slicing means dividing a 3D model into hundreds and thousands of horizontal layers. Slicing software is used to do this.

Sometimes it is possible to slice a 3D file within a 3D modeling software or within a 3D printer. It is also possible that you have to use a certain slicing tool for a certain 3D printer.

When your 3D model is sliced, then you are ready to feed it to your 3D printer. This is done via USB, SD or Wi-Fi. It depends on which brand of 3D printer you are using. When you upload a file into a 3D printer, then that object is ready layer by layer to be 3D printed.

Types of 3D Printing Technology

There are many ways to do 3D print. All these technologies are additive, even if they differ, mainly in the ways that how layers are built to create an object.

Some methods use melting and softening material to extrude layers. While others use a UV laser (or any other similar light source) to cure a photo-reactive resin layer by layer.

To make this thing more precise: Since 2010, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) group "ASTM F42 - Additive Manufacturing", has developed a set of standards that classify additive manufacturing processes 7. in categories.

7 processes are used under Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

1. Vat Photopolymerisation
1.1 Stereolithography (SLA)
1.2 Digital Light Processing (DLP)
1.3 Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

2. Material Jetting

3. Binder Jetting

4. Material Extrusion
4.1 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
4.2 Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)

5. Powder Bed Fusion
5.1 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
5.2 Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)

6. Sheet Lamination

7. Directed Energy Deposition

Here further we will learn about all these seven 3D Printing Processes.

vat Photopolymerisation

A 3D printer is based on the Vat Photopolymerisation method in which a container is filled with photopolymer resin and it is then hardened by a UV light source.

Stereolithography (SLA)
The most commonly used technology in this is Stereolithography (SLA).

This technology uses a vat of liquid ultraviolet curable photopolymer resin and an ultraviolet laser, one at a time to create layers of object.

For each layer, the laser beam traces a cross-section of that part pattern on the surface of the liquid resin. With the Ultraviolet laser light coming into the exposure, it cures and solidifies the pattern, which is traced to the resin and then joins it with the bottom layer.

After the pattern has been traced, the SLA's elevator platform descends by a distance equal to the thickness of a single layer, typically 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm (0.002 ″ to 0.006 ″).

Then a resin-filled blade sweeps across the cross section of that part, which then re-coating the fresh material. On this new liquid surface, the subsequent layer pattern is traced, in which it is joined with the previous layer. Now this three-dimensional object is completely completed and is ready at the end of this project.

Stereolithography requires supporting structures that attach to the part of the elevator platform they have to serve and to hold that object as it floats in a basin that is filled with liquid resin. They have to be manually removed when the object is finally finished.

Charles Hull invented this technique in 1986, he also found a company called 3D Systems at that time.

Digital Light Processing (DLP)

DLP Digital Light Processing is a method of printing that uses light and photosensitive polymers. Where it is very similar to stereolithography, the key difference they make is their light-source. DLP utilizes traditional light-sources such as arc lamps.

In most forms of DLP, each layer of that desired structure is projected into a liquid resin work in vat that is then solidified layer by layer, in which the buildplate moves up or down. As such this process performs every layer successively, so that it is the fastest process in most forms of 3D printing.

Envision Tec Ultra, MiiCraft High Resolution 3D printer, and Lunavast XG2 are examples of DLP printers.

Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

The newest and fastest process that uses Vat Photopolymerisation is CLIP, which is the full form Continuous Liquid Interface Production. It was invented by a company called Carbon.

Carbon launched three industrial 3D printers:

1. Carbon M1
2. Carbon M2 3D Printer
3. Carbon L1

Digital Light Synthesis

Digital Light Synthesis technology is the heart of the CLIP process. In this technology, light projects from a custom high performance LED light engine to UV images of a sequence, in which it exposes a cross-section, 3D printed part that partially cures UV curable resin in a precisely controlled way.

Oxygen is passed through the oxygen permeable window to create a thin liquid interface between the window of the uncured resin and the printed part called the dead zone.

This dead zone is very thin, about ten of microns. Within this dead zone, oxygen prohibits curing the light from the resin that remains closest to the window, allowing it to continue under the printed part of the continuous flow liquid. UV projected light upwards just above the dead zone causes a cascade such as curing of the part.
Printing only does not allow Carbon's hardware to end use properties in real world applications. Once the light has shaped the part, a second programmable curing process achieves that desired mechanical properties by baking only the 3d printed part in a thermal bath or oven.

Programmed thermal curing sets mechanical properties for which it triggers a secondary chemical reaction which causes the material to be strengthened and finally by achieving the desired final properties.

Parts that are printed with Digital Light Synthesis ™ are mostly injection-molded parts. Digital Light Synthesis ™ produces consistent and predictable mechanical properties, creating parts that are solid from within.

Material jetting

In this process, the material is applied in droplets by a small diameter nozzle, which is similar to the working of a common inkjet paper printer, but it is applied layer-by-layer, allowing a platform so that a 3D object can be created and then hardened with the help of UV light.

Binder Jetting

Binder jetting uses two materials: a powder base material and a liquid binder.

In the build chamber, the powder is first spread in equal layers and then the binder is applied by jet nozzles which "glue" the powder particles into the shape of a programmed 3D object.

Now the finished object is glueed together by the binder remains in that container, using the powder base material. Once the print is over, then the remaining powder is cleaned and used in the next object in 3D printing.

This technology was first developed in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993 and 1995. Z Corporation acquires its exclusive license.

material extrusion

This most commonly used technology in this process is called Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

This FDM technology works using a plastic filament or metal wire that is unwound with a coil and the material is supplied to an extrusion nozzle that turns the flow on or off.

The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism, which is directly controlled by a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software package. through.

In this, the object is produced in the form layers of the extruded melted material as if the material hardens immediately, as if it is extruse with nozzle.

This technology is most commonly used in two plastic 3D printer filament types:

ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Polylactic acid).
By the way, many other materials are available, whose properties range from wood fill to flexible and even conductive materials.

FDM was invented by Scott Crump in late 80’s. He started a company named Stratasys in 1988 after making it a patent for technology. The term Fused Deposition Modeling and its abbreviation FDM are both trademarked by Stratasys Inc.

Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)

Its exactly equivalent term, Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), was named by members of the RepRap project, who wanted to give it a phrase that would later be used legally unconstrained. That is, it did not face any problem in using it.

By the way, there are many different types of FFF 3D Printer configurations. The most popular arrangements that happen are:

Cartesian-XY-Head
Cartesian-XZ-Head
Delta
Core xy

powder Bed Fusion

The most commonly used technology in this is Selective Laser Sintering (SLS).

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
SLS uses a very high power laser to fuse small particles of plastic, ceramic and glass powders together in a mass that has a desired three-dimensional shape.

In this, the laser selectively fuses the powdered material, for which it scans cross-sections (or layers) that are generated by the 3D modeling program in the surface of the powder bed.

Once each cross-section is scanned, then the powder bed is lowered to a layer thickness. Then a new layer material is applied in the top and this process is repeated until the object is completed.

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)

DMLS is basically the same as SLS, but it uses metal, plastic, ceramic or glass instead.

All untouched powder remain in the same way and become an support structure for that object. Therefore there is no need for any support structure in it, which provides it advantage over SLS and SLA.

All unused powder can be used in next print. SLS was developed and patented. They were discovered in the mid-1980s by Carl Deckard, who was from the University of Texas, also under the sponsorship of DARPA.

Sheet Lamination

In the process of sheet lamination, the material of the sheets is bound together with the help of external force. Sheets can be anything, whether it is metal, paper or a form of polymer.

Metal sheets are weld together in layers with ultrasonic welding and then CNC is milled into a proper shape.

Paper sheets can also be used, but they stick to each other due to adhesive glue and they are cut later by precise blades in shape. Mcor Technologies is a leading company in this field.

Directed Energy Deposition

Most of this process is used in the high-tech metal industry as well as in rapid manufacturing applications. It is often attached to a 3D printing apparatus with a multi-axis robotic arm and containing a nozzle that deposits metal powder or wire above a surface and an energy source (laser, electron beam or plasma arc ) That melts it, as well as a solid object at the end.

Which materials are used in 3D Printer and Printing?

Mainly six types of materials are used for additive manufacturing which are:

polymers, metals, concrete, ceramics, paper and some edibles (e.g. chocolate).

Materials are often produced by wire feedstock a.k.a. In 3D printer filament, powder form or liquid resin.

All seven previously described 3D printing techniques use these same materials. By the way, polymers are more commonly used and some additive techniques put more emphasis on the use of certain materials.

How to choose the right 3D printing process?

Choosing the right optimal 3D printing process can be difficult for a particular application. Often there is more than one process that is suitable, each process offers different benefits, such as greater dimensional accuracy, superior material properties and better surface finish.

For this reason, I have made a decision making tools and generalized guidelines that will help you in choosing the right 3D printing process.

Generally speaking, there are actually three main things that you should consider first:

Material properties required: strength, hardness, impact strength etc.
Functional and visual design requirements: smooth surface, strength, heat resistance etc.
Capabilities of 3D printing process: accuracy, available print volume, layer height etc.

What is 3D Printing Industry? How does it work

The worldwide 3D printing industry's expected growth was around $ 3.07B revenue from 2013 to $ 12.8B in 2018. At the same time, according to sources, it is also going to cross the figure of $ 21B by 2020.

As it evolves, 3D printing technology is going to transform all major industries in future, along with it is going to change how we are going to live, work, and play in future.

This 3D printing industry encompasses many forms of technologies and materials. Where people think about 3D printing, then they vizualize about Desktop 3D Printer. I told you about this very small thing.

3D printing is divided into metals, fabrics, bio and other industries. That is why it is important that it should be seen as a cluster of diverse industries which have different applications.

If we try to know what percentage of 3D printing is used in which industries, then for this I have put some figures below to understand it better: -

Consumer Goods (17%)
Industrial Goods (17%)
High Tech (13%)
Services (9%)
Healthcare sectors (7%)
3D printing is now more entangled with our day-to-day business operations. CEOs of many companies see 3D printing as one of the benefits. In recent times most companies are primarily focusing in research, development and prototyping. Everyone is aware of their potential.

Advantages of 3D printing

Now let us know about the important benefits of 3D printing.

Geometric Complexity that too no Extra Cost

3D printing allows easy fabrication of complex shapes, most of the things can not be prepared by any other manufacturing method.

Due to the additive nature of this technology, the price of their geometric complexity is not high. Parts of such complex things and the performance of organic geometry optimized are just as much as 3D print. Which is also much less than the cost of traditional manufacturing.

Very Low Start-up Costs

Earlier formative manufacturing (such as Injection Molding and Metal Casting) required a unique mold in each part. The cost of these custom tools is very high. Thousands of items of the same parts were manufactured to reduce their price.

Since there is no need for specialized tooling in 3D printing, the start-up cost is negligible. The price of the 3D printed part depends only on the amount of materials used, the time it takes the machine to print it and post-processing, if it takes to get the final output.

Customizing each part

Have you ever wondered why our clothes have standardized sizes? I have already explained the reason for this, in traditional manufacturing, it is easier and cheaper for consumers to sell similar (similar) types of products.

3D printing allows easy customization. Since its start-up costs are very low, all it has to do is to change the digital 3D model to create a new custom part. So what is the result?

Therefore, each item can be customized easily according to the specific needs of the user, due to which there is no impact on the manufacturing costs.

Low-cost prototyping too soon

3D printing has a great use that it can be easily prototyping - for both form and function. All these things can be done in a very short time and other processes are not damaged in this. Also, no other manufacturing process is capable of doing this.

Parts that are printed in a desktop 3D printer can usually be prepared overnight and large quantities of orders can be prepared in 2-5 days.

The speed of preparing prototyping also shows considerable improvement in the design cycle (design, test, improve, re-design). Products that used to take 8+ months to develop, whereas now it takes only 8-10 weeks to develop.

Having a Large Range for Specialty Materials

The most common and common 3D printing materials used in recent times is plastics. Metal 3D printing is also used in many industrial applications.

3D printing pallet contains specialty materials whose properties can be changed according to specific applications. The 3D printed parts that we are using nowadays are high heat resistance, high strength or stiffness and also biocompatible.

Composites are also very common in 3D printing. The materials used in it are mixed with metal, ceramic, wood or carbon particles, or reinforced carbon fibers. In the results we get parts that have unique properties that are suitable for specific applications.

What are the limitations of 3D Printings?

While 3D Printings has so many advantages, there are some limitations of it. So let's know about their limitations.

Lower strength and anisotropic material properties

The physical properties of these 3D printed parts are not as good as the bulk materials. Since they are made layer-by-layer, therefore they are weaker and more brittle in one direction than about 10% to 50%.

For this reason, plastic 3D printed parts are mostly used in non-critical functional applications.

Low cost-competitive even in higher volumes

3D printing can never compete with traditional manufacturing processes when it comes to large production runs.

The lack of a custom tool or mold in 3D printing leads to low start-up costs, so prototypes and a small amount of identical parts (up to about 10) can be easily manufactured economically. Whereas when it comes to large quantities, then this technology would fail there in terms of cost.

Having limited accuracy and tolerances

The accuracy of a 3D Printed Parts depends on the process and calibration of that machine. Typically, parts that are printed in a desktop FDM 3D printer have very low accuracy and tolerances are also very low.

For example, if you design a hole whose diameter is 10mm then after printing its true diameter it will be between 9.5mm to 10.5mm.

Post-processing and support removal

Printed parts are used immediately in very few places. Because they are not ready at that time, rather they have to go through one or more post-processing steps to get ready.

For example, when an item is printed with a 3D printer, as if they are separated from the printer, then there are some marks and blemishes in the surface that are in contact with the other device. These areas require additional operations (sanding, smoothing, painting) to achieve a high quallity surface finish.

What is the main use of 3D printing

3D printer
Now let us know about the different applications of 3D printing.

Aerospace

Aerospace and Space engineers use it to manufacture high-performance parts of 3D printing. Their ability is that they can create topology optimized structures which have high strength-to-weight ratio and the possibility that multiple components can be consolidated into a single part and which is very appealing.

Automotive

This automotive industry has also been greatly exploited by 3D Printings because it allows them to do their customization easily and that too in a very short time.

For example, Volkswagen traditionally uses CNC machining to create custom jigs and fixtures. CNC typically has longer production times and higher costs. These same jigs and fixtures can be 3D printed overnight and can also be tested in the assembly line on the same day. the next day.

Robotics

In the world of robotics & automation, custom one-off parts are always needed to develop new robotic mechanisms. 3D printing has evolve very quickly in this industry according to a main manufacturing technology, because of their speed, great design freedom and ease of customization.

Its large range of material options also allows it to create unique structures, with unique properties, such as "soft" robots.

Industrial tooling

In the development of new 3D printing materials that provide high heat resistance and stiffness, which are combined with their ability to quickly create custom parts, it also promotes 3D printing at a very low cost. In industrial tooling to use them in multiple applications.

healthcare

You may be surprised to know that hearing aids are manufactured in the US with the help of exclusive 3D printing. Whereas companies which do not adopt new technology quickly, they have to face a lot of competition later.

The healthcare and prosthetics field has gained a lot of benefits when they adopt 3D printing. There is no need to make custom shapes, such as hearing aids, anymore with maunal labor. They can easily be made immediately from a digital file. With this, they can be prepared in very low prices and in large quantities quickly.

Product design

With the help of 3D printing, product designers can easily customize their products without any extra costs. They can easily create high-quality functional prototypes for that new product concept. At the same time, this also greatly accelerates the design cycle.

Entertainment

3D printing has now become a very favorite tool for movie makers, as it has the ability to make believable props. Due to its high design flexibillity, it helps entertainment professionals to make things according to their thinking. It can be made very easily and quickly, apart from this, its price is also very low.

Education

3D printing technology has great potential in educational environments. With its help, course subjects can be made alive by creating their scaled replicas. It equip students with practical (and much more valuable) real-life experience.

Makers

For those makers who constantly explore new ideas, 3D printing is a perfect tool for them. One of its key benefits is its ability by which unlimited spare parts and new designs can be made without having to depend on external vendors.

They can easily develop and customize their designs so that they get more time to think new and better concepts and provide the right form.

What is the future of 3D printing?

Experts believe that this technological development of additive manufacturing will change the nature of commerce because end users can manufacture a lot without relying on anyone. For this, they will not have to buy anything from other people and corporations.

3D printers that are currently capable of generating output in color and multiple materials, or going to improve further, in which even functional (electronic) products can also be found in the output.

Also, the effect of 3D printing is going to fall in energy use, waste reduction, customization, product availability, medicine, art, construction and sciences, 3D printing will change the attitude of the manufacturing world in the future and it is going to happen.

3D printing

I hope you have liked my article about 3D printing. It has always been my endeavor to provide complete information about the 3D printing technology to the readers, so that they do not have to search in the context of that article in any other sites or internet. This will also save their time and they will also get all the information in one place.

If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then for this you can write down comments.

If you liked this post what is the main use of 3D printing or got to learn something, then please share this post on social networks such as Facebook, Google+ and Twitter etc.



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